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 This chapter describes an approach undertaken by Education Wave (davalgaa.mn), a Mongolian non-governmental organization (NGO), to investigate how parents and teachers of preschool children can become engaged in using and adapting open educational resources (OER). The project involved designing, localizing and implementing OER for the purpose of improving parents’ and teachers’ knowledge and abilities to work with preschool children. The aim of this iterative multi-phased research project was to study the practice impacts on parents, preschool and primary school teachers when they used, adapted and localized early childhood OER learning materials for the Mongolian context. The outcome of the first phase was capacity-building in an appropriate design approach for developing and localizing OER preschool materials for free use by schools, teachers and parents.  

Introduction

Children constitute a considerable proportion of the Mongolian population. As of 2009, 11.3% of the entire population was in the age range of 0 - 5 (NSO, 2009a). The number of births increased from 55,774 in 2007 to 68,762 in 2009 (NSO, 2009b).

 

Photo by Jen Roetzsch

Mongolia has a well-developed system of education from preschool to tertiary levels, including institutions for technical and vocational education and training. As of 2012, there were 750 general education schools, educating approximately half a million students and there were about 175,000 higher education students in Mongolia. The Ministry of Education oversees the development and progress of education and training.

The Mongolian education system has several components: 

  • Preschool, including kindergarten
  • five years of primary education, beginning at age 6
  • four years of lower secondary education
  • three years of upper secondary education
  • post-secondary and higher education
  • technical education and vocational training 

The Mongolian education system developed from a system of education based on the Soviet model to a more flexible system, including improving the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels through rationalization and decentralization. Since the 1990s, there was a relaxation of state control over curriculum in Mongolia, with efforts at diversification based on local community needs and a shift from teacher-centred to a more student-centred curriculum (Weidman, 2002; Steiner-Khamsi, 2007).

The Mongolian secondary school system underwent major reforms, replacing the 10-year program with an 11-year program in the 2004-2005 academic years and, more recently, introducing a 12-year academic program during 2008-2009 (Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia, 2008).  The most influential and potentially problematic changes of the educational system have occurred among students in first and second grade classes, with six-year-olds now enrolling in school as first grade students instead of eight-year olds as  in previous years, resulting in younger children being  enrolled in first and second grades. In other words, four years of primary school have been increased to six years, forming part of the 12-year education system. Children up to the age of eight have been included in the “early-age children” category.  Parents of preschool children and first and second grade students were targeted as participants in the research project reported in this chapter.

Photo by Zeinolda

Supporting open development practices in Mongolia

During a period of four years, between 2008-2012, a project named Development Research to Empower All Mongolians Through Information Communications Technology (DREAM I.T.) conducted capacity-building initiatives to introduce and demonstrate a range of open practices in Mongolia, including open government, open data and open access publishing. Recently, DREAM I.T. has focused some of its research activities specifically at demonstrating open practices in the education sector.

The creation and use of OER in Mongolia is at an early stage. Public awareness of OER and their potential use in education is low and Mongolia has not formally established a Creative Commons (CC) affiliate or localized CC licenses. In addition, there is no legal environment for OER and the relationship between OER and publishing interests in Mongolia has not been fully explored. However, Internet use is rising in Mongolia. By 2010, 30.6% of the population, corresponding to 709,625 residents from the age of six were using the Internet in Mongolia. Of this Internet user population, 49.3% lived in Ulaanbaatar (NSO, 2010). Thus, the increasing Internet use in Mongolia presented an opportunity for the creation and spread of OER using CC licenses. The project described in this chapter aimed at promoting optimized and effective learning for early age children, through the use of OER, and in the longer term, influencing educational policy in Mongolia.

The research project

 Education Wave, a Mongolian NGO, was provided research funding through the DREAM I.T. project to research the design and implementation of an OER materials development and training strategy for preschool teachers and parents. A key emphasis was on the capacity-building of the project participants.

In 2011, Education Wave presented a multi-phased research plan at the DREAM I.T. national seminar. It proposed to conduct applied research to determine whether adapted OER resources could be used by Mongolian preschool teachers and whether these OER would be useful for engaging children and be interesting for them. The researchers sought to answer the following questions:

  1. Under what conditions under did teachers use, adopt and/or adapt OER in their practice?
  2. Would communities of parents and teachers come together and regularly add, revise and improve the resources

 At the national seminar, Education Wave also launched a child development book, titled Шийдвэрлэх нас (The Deciding Age). To demonstrate the practice of making resources open and freely available, the book chapters were made publicly available through Education Wave’s website, davalgaa.mn, using the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license (CC BY-NC-SA). This license allows free reproduction and distribution of material for all uses except commercial gain. The research team used the OER materials from the book with the study participants. The Education Wave website and resources (Figures 1 and 2) can be viewed at www.davalgaa.mn.

 Figure 1. The davalgaa.mn web site

 

 

Figure 2. User-generated videos on the CC-licensed davalgaa.mn web site 

The aim of the Education Wave research project was to study the practice impacts on Mongolian parents and preschool, kindergarten and primary school teachers when they created and used Mongolian early childhood education learning OER materials, or used materials adapted from OER repositories worldwide, after they were localized for a Mongolian context. Another aim was to make all of the project’s Mongolian material, whether original or adapted from OER in other languages, freely available for use by schools, teachers and parents across the country.

Sixty parents from the capital, Ulaanbaatar (UB), and from communities in the Dundgovi, Orkhon, Khovd, and Dornod aimags participated in the project, along with preschool, first and second grade teachers from schools in each of the participating aimags (Figure 3). Appendix 1 lists a summary of research participants.

 

 

Figure 3. Project participants came from four aimags across Mongolia.

 

Conceptual framework for the research process

The project was proposed as a multi-phase design-based research (DBR) approach, adapting the ideas of Sandoval & Bell (2004), Reeves, Herrington & Oliver (2005), Reeves (2006) and Amiel & Reeves (2008). Phase 1 research took place in 2011-2012.

 

 

 

Figure 4. Empirical research vs. design-based research process (adapted from Amiel & Reeves, 2008)

 

DBR differs from predictive, empirical research, as described in Figure 4. It is a systematic and flexible research methodology, aimed to improve educational practices using iterative analysis, design, development and implementation processes. Based on collaboration among researchers and teachers in real-world settings, DBR is intended to lead to contextually sensitive design principles and theories (Wang & Hannafin, 2005). 

DBR is appropriate for situations where research is conducted in authentic natural educational settings. It is based on the desire for research to have practical impact by having clear relevance for the improvement of education. As such, DBR provided a process that seemed well suited for researching an educational technology innovation in an international development context with participants in Mongolia.

Baseline study

Within the framework of this research, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used, including survey questionnaires, interviews and document analysis.

Within the design-based framework of the esearch, the project team sought to explore the following research themes over multiple phases. 

  • Determine what barriers and challenges parents and teachers faced and what skills and knowledge they wanted to obtain in order to work and interact with their children;
  • Identify skills and knowledge that parents had used to work with their children;
  • Study how teachers developed curiculum and how it could be improved or be created as OER; and
  • Draw conclusions from the results of the research and identify key issues to guide the design processes for project implementation, including materials development, training and evaluation.      

The first phase was the conduct of baseline questionnaire research with parents and teachers for the purpose of identifying what problems they faced when working with early age children; what methods they used when they communicated and worked with children; as well as what additional teaching resource materials they needed. The results of the baseline research were intended to identify needs and a design pattern for the types of open resources that would be created or adapted and made freely available for use by teachers and parents across Mongolia.

Based on the research objectives, questionnaires were developed in order to determine the challenges and needs facing parents and teachers. The survey questionnaire was conducted during June and July 2011, by the project team and by the officers in charge of primary  and preschool education at the Education and Cultural Authority of the four aimags where the study was conducted. Sample questionnaires can be found in:

  • Appendix 2 -  Questionnaire for  parents with preschool age children (0 - 6 years) and
  • Appendix 3 - Questionnaire for parents whose children completed the first and second grades.

Sixty parents with children up to the age of six, including 52 mothers and eight fathers, aged  21-46 from Ulaanbaatar and the four aimags were involved in the questionnaire process. In terms of parental education, 27.7% of fathers and 8.5% of mothers had  secondary education, whereas 72.3% of fathers and 91.5% of mothers had higher education diplomas or degrees.   When categorizing parents by their children’s ages, there were 18 parents who had children in the age range  of 0-18 months, 20 parents with children aged  19-36 months, 14 parents  with children  aged 37-60 months and  seven  parents with children aged 61-72 months. 

In the research with the school-age children, there were no participants from the Dundgovi aimag. A total of 32 parents (nine fathers and 23 mothers) whose children completed first and second grades were in the 28-48 age range. In terms of parental education, 21.1% of fathers and 6.9% of mothers had post-primary education, 36.8% of fathers and 17.2% of mothers had secondary education and 42.1% of fathers and 75.9% of mothers had graduated from tertiary education. A majority of the fathers had secondary education, while a majority of mothers had a professional diploma and bachelor degree. In general, the fathers’ education level was lower than the mothers’. All parents from UB had at least secondary education.    

In parallel with administering the questionnaires, interviews were also conducted to follow up on questionnaires and to identify and explore specific problems facing teachers and parents.

The research team used a document analysis approach when conducting research on how teachers developed curricula and explored how these could be used to support an OER approach. Sample curricula studied were those formulated and used in the academic year 2010-2011 by preschools involved in project. Curriculum analysis consisted of two parts:  detailed analysis of the curricula and a general evaluation on the curriculum  development process.

Findings of the baseline study and how they guided the project

The baseline study identified that preschool teachers in Mongolia used several approaches and methods to teach children as many subjects as possible, and a teacher-centric manner was the dominant educational practice. Other key findings were: 

  • Both parents and teachers perceived they had insufficient knowledge and skills for working effectively with children, but they had strong desire to know about children’s development characteristics and to have a positive influence on their development.
  • Parents and teachers stated that they were ready to use OER materials and information posted on the website if the research team would translate and localize advice and information on early age children’s development, effective learning approaches and various types of teaching aids from other open websites.
  • Parents and teachers mentioned that they were interested in video more than text materials. In addition, they wanted to share their ideas and pressing problems with each other by using the Internet and the online forums provided on the davalgaa.mn website.
  • Research showed that 75% of parents could not provide their children with good support when doing their homework. They also mentioned that there was pressure from the school to do more homework and this pressure caused anxiety for both children and parents.

With respect to the problems with homework, the project team believed that this issue should undergo more in-depth research to determine the support and training that should be provided to teachers to appropriately match the specific needs of early age children.  In addition, based on the results of the first round of research it was determined that there was a need to explore the preference for formal lessons by preschool teachers.

It was agreed to pursue further research into these two areas for the purpose of identifying or generating ideas on how to address these issues and the participants formulated the following questions: 

  1. Why did preschool teachers prefer formal lessons to other activities when organizing daily activities and developing curricula?
  2. Why were homework and working with children at home on school-related tasks considered difficult by parents with first and second grade pupils? 

It is intended that these questions be followed up in future research, as the project time did not allow for them to be addressed.

OER implementation

Following the baseline study, the team conducted face-to-face surveys, using questionnaires and an exploratory online study (online discussion) among parents about the impact of working with children, using the initial set of OER posted on the davalgaa.mn website.

Many parents said they were beginning to understand their children better through working with them more closely using the new resources provided by the project team. The videos of single concept lessons were an innovative approach that the project team tested with parents and teachers. This approach received positive responses.

The final report, Using OER to Improve Parents’ Knowledge and Abilities to Work with Early Aged Children (Education Wave, 2012) provides additional details on the project, its goals, methodology, data collection and results.

 

 

 



Project Wrap-Up Seminar.  Photo by Bayasgalan

After the davalgaa.mn website had been operational for some time, we arranged a Google Analytics report of the site, for a 5-month period in 2012, illustrated in Figure 5. The report showed that the website was visited over 80,000 times.

[O1] 

Figure 5. Google Analytics report for davalgaa.mn over a 5-month period (Orgodol, 2012) 

An evaluation on the accessibility and usability of the davalgaa.mn website was conducted by a consulting Internet company in Mongolia (Orgodol, 2012). According to the evaluators, the content and use of the website were good, but they indicated there was some room for improvement on the design side. Specific recommendations from the report included: 

  1. Redesign the front‐page. The use of extraneous information on the front page should be limited to make the footer more visible. Extraneous information may also restrict a first time visitor’s interest in drilling down into other pages.
  2. Navigation structure review. The main menu was specifically designed for preschool teachers, and this distracted parents’ attention and could restrict their further drill-down to the website’s quality contents. The evaluators suggested the following categories on the main menu:  Teachers | Parents | Children | News| Forum | Comments | Video | Gallery. Further detailed menu redesigning processes should include representatives from teachers, parents and children.
  3. Improving the forum section and making it more user-friendly in terms of a login page and forum design. Users were not registering for the forum and discussing their issues. Instead, they used the comments section, which did not require logging in.
  4. Adding user menus. This should include the most useful functions for logged-in users. Such as my drafts | my articles | inbox | my friends | my forum discussions, etc. Also, this menu should include content publishing hand‐outs for people who do not have basic IT literacy skills.
  5. Categorization for contents should be done. While planning the category structure, the organization should consider website audience and usability issues mentioned above. 

Concluding remarks

What has been accomplished?

The project team built their capacity in using the design-based research approach. Parents and teachers became acquainted with free and open educational resources that can be used to engage and support their work with early age children.

The capacity of participants in the project to use Internet-based learning resources improved. The project team members, along with school and preschool teachers learned how to develop and use OER with early age children. Both print and video resources were developed by the participants and made available via the davalgaa.mn website.

The project team developed and published The Deciding Age book and made it available for free download.   

What’s next? 

In the future, the team intends to research and identify changes in the methods employed by teachers in their curriculum development and work with children, resulting from the design ideas generated in this project. The researchers also plan to examine changes in day-to-day practical work that might occur after teachers have started using the OER materials provided by the project team, teachers and other contributors.

The project team intends to build a national open website where teachers and parents of early age children can improve their knowledge and abilities. Specifically, they aim to: 

  • increase the number of users, including parents and teachers who use OER as a result of public awareness on davalgaa.mn website;
  • increase the number of people who use and develop OER, by conducting further training; and
  • improve the quality, quantity and diversity of OER developed in Mongolia and made available on the national OER website. 

It is expected that in the future, the number of teachers who use and create OER will increase, thereby improving their knowledge and abilities to work with early age children. The team believes that by scaling the project, more teachers will become responsive to children’s needs and interests. This would also enhance policy makers’ and teachers’ recognition of the use of OER as a new important tool to help upgrade teachers’ professionalism by building a supportive community of practitioners. 

References 

Amiel, T.  & Reeves, T. C. (2008). Design-based research and educational technology: rethinking technology and the research agenda. Educational Technology & Society, 11(4), 29–40. 

Education Wave (2012). Using OER to improve parents’ knowledge and abilities to work with early aged children: final report of sub-project 8. Education Wave NGO (davalgaa.mn), 25 July 2012, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. http://dreamit.mn/sub8/file/Final_Report_Educational_Wave_2012.pdf 

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia (2008). Law of Mongolia on Education, Article 7.2. http://www.mongolweb.net/edu/index.php?songolt=content&task=content_item&id=200&menu_id=30%5C

NSO - National Statistical Office of Mongolia (2009a). The 2009 population and housing census of Mongolia. http://www.nso.mn 

NSO - National Statistical Office of Mongolia (2009b). Monthly bulletin of statistics, 2009, December, p.18. http://www.nso.mn 

NSO - National Statistical Office of Mongolia (2010). The 2010 population and housing census of Mongolia. http://www.toollogo2010.mn/index.php?language=en 

Orgodol, A. (2012). An evaluation of the davalgaa.mn website: accessibility and usability evaluation report. http://dreamit.mn/sub8/file/Evaluation_Report_for-the_davalgaa.pdf 

Reeves, T. (2006). Design research from a technology perspective. In J. V. D. Akker, K. Gravemeijer, S. McKenney & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Educational Design Research (pp. 52–66). New York: Routledge. 

Reeves, T. C., Herrington, J. & Oliver, R. (2005). Design research: a socially responsible approach to instructional technology research in higher education. Journal of Computing and Higher Education, 16(2), 97-116. 

Sandoval, W. & Bell, P. (2004). Design-based research methods for studying learning in context: introduction. Educational Psychologist, 39(4), 199-201. 

Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2007). Mongolia country case study. Country profile prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2008 Education for All by 2015: will we make it? Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001555/155585e.pdf

Wang, F. & Hannafin, M. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5–23. 

Weidman, J.C. (2002). Developing the Mongolia Education Sector Strategy 2000-2005: reflections of a consultant for the Asian Development Bank. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 3(2).

 

 

Appendix 1

Summary description of parents and teachers involved in the project

 

No

Aimag

(province)

and city

Teachers involved in the project

Parents involved in the project

Children’s age

Total

1

 

 

 

 

Dornod aimag

Teachers from kindergarten # 8

1 parent with child aged 0-18 months

1 parent with child aged 19-36 months

1 parent with child aged 37-60 months

1 parent with child aged 61-72 months

2 parents with 1st grade student

2 parents with 2nd grade student

 

 

8

parents

2

Teachers with 1st and 2nd grade students from school # 1

3

 

 

 

 

Khovd aimag

Teachers from kindergarten # 1

1 parent with child aged 0-18 months

1 parent with child aged 19-36 months

1 parent with child aged 37-60 months

1 parent with child aged 61-72 months

2 parents with 1st grade student

2 parents with 2nd grade student

 

 

8

parents

4

Teachers with 1st and 2nd grade students from “Tsast Altai” complex school

5

 

 

 

 

Orkhon aimag

Teachers from kindergarten # 4

1 parent with child aged 0-18 months

1 parent with child aged 19-36 months

1 parent with child aged 37-60 months

1 parent with child aged 61-72 months

2 parents with 1st grade student 

2 parents with 2nd grade student

 

 

8

Parents

6

Teachers with 1st and 2nd grade students from“Bayan-Undur” complex school

 

7

Dundgovi aimag

Teachers from kindergarten # 3

1 parent with child aged 0-18 months

1 parent with child aged 19-36 months

1 parent with child aged 37-60 months

1 parent with child aged 61-72 months

 

 

4

Parents

8

 

 

 

 

Ulaanbaatar

Teachers from kindergarten #42

2 parents with child aged 0-18 months

2 parents with children aged 19-36 months

2 parents with children aged 37-60 months

2 parents with children aged 61-72 months

2 parents with 1st grade student

2 parents with 2nd grade student

 

12

Parents

9

Teachers with 1st and 2nd grade students from school # 24

 

 

Total

 

All teachers from

5 kindergartens and 4 schools

6 parents with child aged 0-18 months

6 parents with children aged 19-36 months

6 parents with children aged 37-60 months

6 parents with children aged 61-72 months

8 parents with 1st grade student

8 parents with 2nd grade student

 

 

40 parents

 

 

Appendix 2

Sample questionnaire for parents with preschool age children (0 - 6 years)

 

The purpose of the questionnaire is to determine difficulties of parents with preschool- aged children in working with their children and to support them. We hope you will help and support us by answering the survey questions. NB: If you choose the answer “Other” could you please describe your options.

 

General questions:

 

Aimag/District:          ...............................     Name:............................          Age: ...............                       

Contact details:         Tel:  ........................    If you have email address .............................

                                               

Who are you for your child/children? (please circle)

            a. Father                                 b. Mother                   

           

Educational level of parents (please mark on appropriate one with you)

 

Educational level

Father

Mother

Uneducated

 

 

Primary education

 

 

Post-primary education

 

 

Secondary education

 

 

Undergraduate education

 

 

Postgraduate education

 

 

 

Employment status of parents (please mark on appropriate one with you)

Employment status

Father

Mother

Employed of public sector

 

 

Employed of private sector

 

 

Self-employed

 

 

NGOs (Non-governmental organization)

 

 

International organizations (Project, Program etc.)

 

 

Retired

 

 

Student

 

 

Part-time employee

 

 

Herder

 

 

Unemployed

 

 

 

Profession: ...................................   (If you do not have profession, you can write down “NO”)

 

Main questions:

 

  1. How old is your child?

a. 0-18 months  b. 19-36 months   c. 37-60 months    d. 61-72 months

 

  1. Number of people in a family  .........           Number of children in a family ..........

 

  1. What ages do you think are very important periods of childhood development to pay attention to? (Please circle one of the answers you have chosen.)

a. 0-5 years     b. 6-11 years      c. 12-14 years     d. 15-18 years

 

  1. Where do you obtain any information for parents? (please mark each box)

 

Source

Often

Sometimes

Never

1

TV, Radio

 

 

 

2

Internet

 

 

 

3

Other parents, friends

 

 

 

4

Books, handbooks

 

 

 

5

Regular newspaper and magazine

 

 

 

6

Official events (parent meeting etc.)

 

 

 

7

Other . . . . . . .

 

 

 

 

  1. Do you have an Internet access? (You can circle more than one answer.)

a. Internet access at home                 b. Internet access at work     

c. Internet access at Internet cafe      d. No Internet access

 

  1. How long do you use the Internet per day, on the average?

a. Up to 30 minutes    b. From 30 minutes to 1 hour      c. More than 1 hour

 

  1. What difficulties do you find to obtain information for preschool parents on the Internet? (if you use internet, could you please order them from the most difficult to the least difficult one)

 

a. Spend a lot of time to find information                                          __

b. Few materials in Mongolian language                                           __

c. Language barrier to use materials in foreign languages               __

d. The materials for parents are rare                                                __

e. Other . . . . . . . . ..  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                   __

 

  1. Have you faced any difficulties when you work with your child/children?

a. Often             b. Sometimes                        c. No

 

 

  1. If you had difficulties, could you please write down mostly-faced three difficulties?

A_________________________________________________________________

B_________________________________________________________________

C_________________________________________________________________

 

  1. How often do your child/children get sick?

a. Often                       b. Sometimes                            c.Seldom

  1. Could you please write down two most frequent illnesses of your child?

            a ------------------------------------                                    b -------------------------------------

  1. Do you have difficulties with your child’s behavior?

a. Often                       b. Sometimes                          c.No

 

  1. If you have difficulties could you name two of those?

a ------------------------------------                                    b -------------------------------------

  1. Do you agree with the statement that one of the ways to overcome the difficulties as working with your child is Internet access?

a.Yes                b.No

 

  1. What kind of information from Internet, books or other sources will be useful to you? (Could you please order them from the most useful to the least useful one?)

a. Information on how to take care of and upbringing of child                                 __

b. Information on characteristics of ages and thinking of children               __

c. Ways to interact with children and recommendation                                __

d. Other parents’ experience and advice                                                       __

e. Advice on how to help children to learn                                                     __

f. Advice on how to influence child’s behavior and communication              __

g. Games to play with children and ways how to play                                   __

h. Advice on how to help children to right habits into daily life                    __

j.Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 __

 

  1. How would you like to exchange your opinions, feedback, comments or ask questions about materials on the internet or website?

 

  1. a. Write an email                    b. Post a comment     

c. Use of Yahoo Messenger    d. Other..................

 

If you have any other comments or requests could you please share it with us?

(You can use the back side of this page) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Thank you

 

Appendix 3

Sample questionnaire for parents whose children completed first  and second grades

 

The purpose of the questionnaire is to determine difficulties of parents with 1st and 2nd grade students of the primary school as working with their children and to support them. We hope you will help and support us by answering the survey questions. NB: If you choose the answer “Other” could you please describe your options.

 

General questions:

 

Aimag/District:          ...............................  Name:............................ Age: ..................                    

Contact details:         Tel:  ........................ If you have email address:  .......................

                                               

Who are you for your child/children? (please circle)

            a. Father                                 b. Mother       

 

Educational level of parents (please mark on appropriate one with you)

The level of education

Father

Mother

Uneducated

 

 

Primary education

 

 

Post-Primary education

 

 

Secondary education

 

 

Undergraduate education

 

 

Postgraduate education

 

 

 

Employment status of parents (please mark on appropriate one with you)

Employment status

Father

Mother

Employed in the public sector

 

 

Employed in the private sector

 

 

Self-employed

 

 

NGOs (Non-governmental organization)

 

 

International organisations (Project, Program etc.)

 

 

Retired

 

 

Student

 

 

Part-time employee

 

 

Herder

 

 

Unemployed

 

 

 

Profession: ...................................   (If you do not have profession, you can write “NO”)

 

 

Main questions

  1. What grade did your child complete?    ...........

 

  1. Number of people in a family  .........           Number of children in a family ..........

 

  1. What ages do you think are very important periods of childhood development to pay attention to? (Please circle one of the answers you have chosen.)

a. 0-5 years                   b. 6-11 years             c. 12-14 years             d. 15-18 years

 

  1. Did you face any difficulties when your child firstly enrolled in the school?

А. Often                                   Б.Sometimes                          В. No

 

  1. If you had any difficulties, could you please name two most difficult ones?

A_________________________________________________________________

B_________________________________________________________________

 

  1. What subject does your child like most? (Please circle one of the letters)

             a. Mongolian language                      b. Mathematics                      

c. People and the Environment          d. Art and Craft, Technology

e. Music                                              f. Physical Education

 

  1. Are you able to help your children when they do their homework and review what they have studied?

a. Yes, I am                             b. Sometimes                          c. No, I am not

 

  1. If the answer is No I am not why?

 

...........................................................................................................................

 

  1. Could you please mark or circle three difficulties that you have faced when you help your children for their homework and reviewing their studies?                  

a. No time to work with my children             

b. My children do not like their lessons

c. My children are tired when they study     

d. Homework is not clear and instructions are not understandable      

e. We cannot purchase the textbooks

 

If you have chosen the answer “”My children do not like their lessons”, could you please describe the reason why?

 

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

 

 

  1. Do you use the following sources when you work with your children? How? (Please mark each box.)

 

 

The sources

Often

Sometimes

Never

1

Textbooks

 

 

 

2

Workbooks/books

 

 

 

3

Other books, handbooks

 

 

 

4

Radio, TV

 

 

 

5

Regular newspaper and magazine

 

 

 

6

Internet

 

 

 

7

Official events (parents meeting etc.)

 

 

 

8

Other

 

 

 

 

  1. Do you have Internet access? (You can circle more than one answer.)

a. Internet access from home                                    b. Internet access from work 

c. Internet access from Internet cafe             d. No Internet access

 

  1. If you have Internet access how long do you use the Internet, on the average?

a. Up to 30 minutes    b. From 30 minutes to 1 hour             c. More than 1 hour

 

 

  1. What difficulties do you find to obtain information for preschool parents on the Internet? (if you use the internet, could you please order them from the most difficult to the least difficult one)

a. Spend a lot of time to find information                                          __

b. Few materials in Mongolian language                                           __

d. Language barrier to use materials in foreign languages              __

c. The materials for parents are rare                                                            __

e. Other . . . . . . . . ..  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                   __

 

  1. Does your child have any health problems that you have to take care of?                                           a. Yes                   b. No

 

  1. If you have, what problem do you have?

 

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  1. Do you have any problem that you are worried about communication between you and your children?

a. Often               b. Sometimes                      c.No

 

  1. If you have problem in what cases do you have the problem that you are worried about your communication with the children?............................................................................................................

 

  1. Do you agree with the statement that one of the ways to overcome the difficulties is Internet access?

            a. Yes, I do                   b. No, I do not

 

  1. What kind of information from Internet, books or other sources will be useful to you? (Could you please order them from the most useful to the least useful one?)

 

a. Information on characteristics of ages, children’s development and growth __

b. Ways to communicate with children and recommendation          __

c. Advice on how to help children to learn successfully                     __

d. Interesting tasks to do with my children                                        __

e. Children’s story                                                                               __

f. Games, crosswords, picture books, etc.                                          __

g. Science-fiction, videos                                                                    __

h. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __

 

  1. How do we exchange our opinions, feedback, comments or questions about materials on the Internet or website?

a.Write an email                                 b.Post a comment      

c. Use of Yahoo Messenger                d.Other................

 

If you have any other comments and requests could you please share it with us? (You can use the back page.)

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Thank you

 


 [O1]In the figure, remove “very”,  change web to website and add “the” in front of the education sector

by Norjkhorloo  Namral  and David Porter